AI Tools for Scholarly Articles: Enhancing Research Efficiency


Research is a vital but challenging part of academic work. It involves finding, reading, analysing, and synthesising large amounts of information from various sources. It also requires writing, editing, and proofreading papers that are clear, coherent, and convincing. These tasks can be time-consuming and tedious, leaving little room for creativity and innovation. Fortunately, artificial intelligence (AI) can help researchers overcome these challenges and enhance their research efficiency and quality. AI-powered tools can assist researchers with various aspects of their work, such as literature review, writing, editing, citation management, and more. However, there are some limitations and drawbacks of using such tools for academic articles. In this article, we will explore some of the best AI tools for scholarly articles and how they can benefit researchers.

AI Tools for Scholarly Articles

AI tools can help researchers with different stages of their research process, from finding relevant papers to writing and publishing them. Some benefits of using AI tools are:

– They can save time and effort by automating tedious and repetitive tasks, such as searching for papers, summarising them, extracting key information, and generating citations.

– They can improve the quality and accuracy of research by providing data-driven insights, feedback, and suggestions, as well as detecting and correcting errors in grammar, spelling, and style.

– They can enhance the creativity and originality of research by generating new ideas, content, and headlines, as well as finding hidden connections and patterns among research topics.

Examples of Popular AI Tools for Scholarly Articles

There are many AI tools available for scholarly articles, each with its own features and functions. Here are some examples of popular AI tools that researchers can use:

Semantic Scholar:

Academic search engine that helps researchers find relevant and trustworthy papers for their research topic. It also provides single-sentence summaries, similar paper recommendations, and citation evaluation for each paper.

Research organization tool that helps researchers store, manage, and collaborate on their online research sources. It supports various formats of content, such as blogs, articles, videos, infographics, and images.


Research summarization tool that helps researchers extract key points, figures, and references from academic articles. It also generates flashcards and outlines for each article to help researchers review and remember the main takeaways.


Citation evaluation tool that helps researchers check the reliability and impact of citations in academic papers. It also provides smart citations that show how a paper has been supported or contradicted by other papers.


Research paper writing tool that helps researchers improve their grammar, style, and clarity in academic writing. It also provides feedback on the overall structure and flow of a paper.


Helps researchers generate creative and engaging content for their academic papers, such as introductions, conclusions, headlines, and bullet points. It uses natural language generation to produce high-quality text based on the researcher’s input.


Helps researchers write faster and better by providing suggestions, templates, and feedback for their academic writing. It also allows researchers to choose from different writing styles and tones to suit their audience and purpose.


Helps researchers automate research workflows, such as finding relevant papers, summarizing takeaways, and extracting key information from academic articles. It uses language models to answer questions with research evidence.


Helps researchers improve their academic writing style by providing suggestions for word choice, sentence structure, and tone. It also analyses the readability and complexity of a paper.


AI writing assistant that helps users compose essays, stories, articles, blogs, and other long-form content.


Popular tool for proofreading and editing academic papers. It detects and corrects errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation, as well as provides suggestions for improving vocabulary, clarity, and tone.


Helps researchers manage their citations and references for their academic papers. It integrates with PDF readers and Microsoft Word to detect citations and quickly generate a bibliography.


A free, easy-to-use tool to help researchers collect, organize, annotate, cite, and share research. It streamlines the citation process and supports various formats and styles.

IBM Watson Discovery:

Helps researchers analyse and extract the necessary information from scientific papers and provide an overview of the information, summarizing it in an understandable format.


Helps researchers improve their writing skills by detecting and correcting spelling, grammar, and stylistic errors, as well as providing feedback on the readability and structure of a paper.

Paper Digest:

A tool that helps researchers summarize academic articles in a few sentences, highlighting the main points and contributions of each paper.


A search engine for providing Evidence-Based Answers.

Benefits of AI Tools for Scholarly Articles

When it comes to writing a scholarly article, time is of the essence. Research, analysis, and drafting can take weeks or even months. Combine that with the pressure of deadlines, and you have a recipe for stress. AI tools can help alleviate some of the load by simplifying the process and increasing productivity. One benefit of AI tools is time-saving. They can automate several tasks, such as citation management and proofreading, reducing the workload for researchers and helping them focus on creating high-quality content. Efficiency enhancement is another advantage, as AI-based writing assistance tools can suggest vocabulary and phrasing that improve the clarity and coherence of the content. Moreover, AI tools can aid in producing higher-quality research. For instance, automated literature reviews can analyse hundreds of articles and find relevant data more quickly and accurately than manual searches. All in all, AI tools can significantly reduce the time and effort researchers put into scholarly articles while improving quality. They can be a valuable addition to any writer’s toolbox.

Potential Drawbacks and Limitations of AI Tools

When it comes to AI tools for scholarly articles, there are some potential drawbacks and limitations to keep in mind. For starters, AI tools may lack accuracy or specificity in their results. While they can certainly save time and energy in the research process, they may not always be able to provide the nuance or context that humans can. Another limitation of AI tools is their ability to understand humour and sarcasm. This is a key skill in many scholarly articles, especially those in fields like literature or cultural studies. While an AI tool may be able to grasp the basics of the language, it may not truly understand the nuances of irony, satire, or other forms of humour. Over-dependence on technology is also a potential drawback of AI tools for scholarly articles. Researchers who rely too heavily on AI may miss out on the benefits of human interpretation, analysis, and critical thinking. It’s important to remember that AI tools are meant to assist researchers, not replace them entirely. Finally, another potential drawback of AI tools is their lack of interpretation and analysis. While they can certainly automate certain aspects of the research process, they may not always be able to provide the level of insight and analysis that human researchers can. Overall, while AI tools can be incredibly helpful in enhancing research efficiency, it’s important to keep these potential drawbacks and limitations in mind. By using these tools with care and consideration, researchers can help ensure that they get the most out of AI technology without sacrificing the nuance, context, and critical thinking that is so crucial to scholarly articles.

AI tools can be used to help with a variety of tasks, including research, writing, and editing. They can be valuable resources for scholars, but it is important to use them with caution and to always use your critical thinking skills. AI is yet to be mature enough to be reliable.

Factors to Consider While Choosing AI Tools for Scholarly Articles

The process of choosing the right AI tool for your research can be overwhelming. To make an informed decision, several factors need to be considered. First, the tool’s ease of use must be taken into account. No researcher wants to spend valuable time learning how to operate a new tool, which may not improve research efficiency. Therefore, an AI tool that comes with a user-friendly interface and is easy to use is key. Secondly, the tool’s integration with existing tools should be considered. Researchers prefer to use tools that work well alongside others they are already using, without any compatibility issues. Thus, it’s essential to choose an AI tool that integrates well with other tools in your research process. Customer support is another factor to consider when selecting an AI tool. Researchers require technical help and assistance, and a provider that offers quality customer support is ideal. Customization options are equally important to ensure that the tool is compatible with your specific research needs. Lastly, the accuracy and reliability of the AI tool are non-negotiable. It’s crucial that the tool’s output is precise, relevant, and produces consistent results. In conclusion, when choosing an AI tool for scholarly articles, considerations should be made in terms of ease of use, integration with existing tools, customer support, customization options, and accuracy and reliability. Failure to consider one or more of these factors may lead to tools that compromise research quality, efficiency, and, most importantly, time. Last but not least point to consider is that most of these tools would be required to be purchased for full functionality.


In summary, AI tools have greatly enhanced the research efficiency of scholars by providing automated literature reviews, keyword extraction and summarization tools, citation management tools, AI-based writing assistance and automated proofreading and editing tools. The benefits include time-saving, efficiency enhancement and higher-quality research. However, potential drawbacks such as lack of accuracy or specificity in results, limitations in understanding humour and sarcasm, over-dependence on technology and lack of interpretation and analysis need to be considered.


10 AI Tools to Make Academic Writing Smarter & Faster. (2022, December 12). Retrieved May 23, 2023, from SmartScale:

Bello, C. E. (2023, May 8). Euronews. Retrieved May 23, 2023, from The best AI tools to power your academic research:

Eager, B. (2023, April 10). Academic Writing with AI Tools. Retrieved May 23, 2023, from Bron Eager:

Elicit. (n.d.). Retrieved May 23, 2023, from The AI Research Assistant:

Golan, R., Reddy, R., Muthigi, A., & Ramasamy, R. (2023, February 24). Artificial intelligence in academic writing: a paradigm-shifting technological advance. Nature Reviews Urology. Retrieved May 23, 2023, from

Musa, Z. (2021, October 26). Retrieved May 23, 2023, from Can AI Write Academic Papers? 5 Key Things to Assess:

Portakal, E. (2023, May 16). Retrieved May 23, 2023, from Best AI tools for academic writing:

Tay, A. (2021, August 17). AI writing tools promise faster manuscripts for researchers. Retrieved May 23, 2023, from Nature Index:

The 5 Best AI Tools for Postgraduate Research. (n.d.). Retrieved May 23, 2023, from Scholarcy:

Trinka. (2023, March 16). The Five Best AI Tools Every Scholar Should Be Using. Retrieved May 23, 2023, from Trinka:

Librarians for the AI Age

How to Embrace the Opportunities and Challenges of Artificial Intelligence

How will AI impact the future of librarianship?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is transforming every aspect of our lives, from how we communicate, shop, work, and learn. But what does AI mean for librarians and library users? Will AI replace human librarians or enhance their services? How can librarians adapt to the changing needs and expectations of their users in the AI age?

AI is not a new concept. It has been around for about seven decades, but recent developments in the area of Generative AI are disruptive. Generative AI applications such as ChatGPT can create realistic texts, images, and sounds based on user inputs. These applications have made many people worried about losing their jobs to AI. In fact, some big corporations are already cutting their manpower. What about Librarians? Will they lose their jobs? This is a complex and controversial question that does not have a definitive answer. However, according to a survey conducted five years back (Wood & Evans, 2018), librarians are not overly concerned about the threat of AI to their jobs. They believe that AI can enhance rather than replace their services, and that they can adapt to the changing needs and expectations of their users. However, some AI experts warn that latest developments could obsolete up to 80 percent of human jobs in the next few years. Librarians should be prepared for the social and ethical implications of AI for their profession and society.

AI in Library Services.

AI can be used to automate tasks, improve efficiency, and provide new services to library users. Here are some specific examples of how AI is being used in libraries today:

Content indexing:

AI can automate the task of indexing documents, making it faster and more accurate. For example, the British Library uses AI to transcribe handwritten documents and make them searchable online.

Document matching:

AI can help users find relevant documents based on their queries or preferences.

Content summarization:

AI can generate concise summaries of long texts, which can help users decide whether to read them or not. For example, is a tool that can summarize scientific papers and provide key insights for researchers.

Quality of service:

AI can improve the user experience by providing personalized recommendations, feedback, and assistance. For example, the University of Michigan Library uses AI to create personalized reading recommendations for students based on their interests and preferences. New York Public Library uses AI to create virtual tours of its collections and answer user questions through chatbots.

Data analysis:

AI can help libraries make use of their machine-readable collections for research, discovery, or categorization purposes.

Knowledge management:

AI can help libraries organize, store, and integrate their knowledge resources more efficiently and effectively.

Research support:

AI can assist researchers in finding, analyzing, and synthesizing information from various sources. It can also help them with tasks such as citation management, plagiarism detection, and data visualization.

Operational efficiency:

AI can improve the library operations by automating tasks such as cataloging, circulation, inventory management, and shelf-reading. It can also help with optimizing the use of space, resources, and energy. We will see even more innovative and exciting applications in libraries in the future.

Embrace AI as an Active Leader.

AI has the potential to perform routine tasks that now require a human being, which will free up librarians to offer the in-depth expertise that is essential for advanced research. However, AI also poses some social and ethical challenges for librarians and society. For instance, AI applications that rely on extensive data collection may compromise user privacy and equity. Moreover, AI may introduce biases and errors in the information it produces or processes. Therefore, librarians should be prepared for the implications of AI for their profession and society.

Artificial Intelligence is changing the information landscape. Therefore, they should not ignore the potential impact of AI, but rather embrace it as an opportunity to learn new skills and create new value for their communities. Learn AI not as a user but as an active leader to better serve the new upcoming generations. There are different ways that librarians can learn new skills for AI. Here are a few examples:

  • Take online courses or workshops on AI and Machine Learning.
  • Read books, articles, blogs, or reports on AI and ML.
  • Participate in professional development programs or communities on AI and ML.
  • Experiment with AI and ML tools and techniques.

Need for teaching AI to the LIS students.

Students of library and information sciences (LIS) should study Artificial Intelligence. As it is rapidly changing the way libraries operate, students who are familiar with AI will be better prepared for the future. They will be able to use these technologies to make libraries more effective and efficient. They will also be able to develop new services that meet the needs of library users in the AI age.

University departments and other educational institutions offering Library and Information Sciences courses should start teaching AI, at least at the master’s degree level. Unfortunately, syllabus of LIS teaching institutions has remained the same over the years. Though there are few changes with respect to digital libraries and related technologies. Mostly the areas covered are: Introduction to Library and Information Sciences, Classification, Cataloguing, Management of Library and Information Centres, and Information Sources. Some institutions offer course on Information and Communication Technologies but that is too elementary.

Model course on Artificial Intelligence for Library Services.

To prepare students for the future libraries a model course is outlined here. The course should introduce the concepts and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) for library services. It should cover the basics of AI and ML, such as data processing, algorithms, models, evaluation, and ethics. It should also cover as how AI and ML can be used to enhance various aspects of library services, such as collection management, information retrieval, user engagement, and knowledge organization. It must include both theoretical and practical components, with lectures, readings, assignments, and projects.

Students completing the course should be able to:

  • Explain the key concepts and principles of AI and ML
  • Identify the opportunities and challenges of using AI and ML in library services
  • Apply AI and ML tools and techniques to solve library problems
  • Evaluate the performance and impact of AI and ML solutions
  • Reflect on the ethical and social implications of AI and ML for libraries and society


Course outline:

1: Introduction to AI and ML

  • What is AI and ML? History, definitions, types, examples

  • How does AI and ML work? Data, algorithms, models, evaluation

  • Why use AI and ML in library services? Benefits, challenges, trends

2: Data Processing for AI and ML

  • What is data? Sources, formats, quality, preprocessing

  • How to handle data? Storage, management, analysis, visualization

  • What are the data issues? Privacy, security, bias, ethics

3: Algorithms and Models for AI and ML

  • What are algorithms and models? Concepts, categories, examples

  • How to choose algorithms and models? Criteria, comparison, selection

  • How to implement algorithms and models? Tools, frameworks, libraries

4: Information Retrieval with AI and ML

  • What is information retrieval? Concepts, processes, systems

  • How to improve information retrieval? Relevance ranking, query expansion, recommendation systems

  • How to evaluate information retrieval? Measures, methods, experiments

5: User Engagement with AI and ML

  • What is user engagement? Concepts, factors, strategies

  • How to enhance user engagement? Personalization, feedback, gamification chatbots

  • How to measure user engagement? Metrics, techniques, tools

6: Knowledge Organization with AI and ML

  • What is knowledge organization? Concepts, systems, standards

  • How to facilitate knowledge organization? Classification, clustering, extraction, linking

  • How to assess knowledge organization? Quality, usability, interoperability

7: Project Presentations

  • Students present their final projects that apply AI and ML to a library problem of their choice.



AI is a powerful technology that can bring both opportunities and challenges for librarianship. Librarians should embrace AI as a tool that can enhance their services and skills, rather than fear it as a threat that can replace them. Librarians should also educate themselves and their users about AI and its social impacts, and help them thrive in a society that uses AI more extensively. Universities and other institutions offering LIS courses need to restructure their courses to produce librarians for the AI Age.


Daniel. (2021, January 11). 7 ways artificial intelligence is changing libraries. Retrieved May 10, 2023, from IRIS.AI:

Hays, L. (2022, February 22). Artificial Intelligence in Libraries. Retrieved May 10, 2023, from

IFLA FAIFE. (2020). IFLA Statement on Libraries and Artificial Intelligence. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). Retrieved May 10, 2023, from

Northwestern University. Libraries. (n.d.). Using AI Tools in Your Research: A continually-updated guide on using AI tools like ChatGPT in your research: Librarians and Faculty. Retrieved May 10, 2023, from

Omame, I., & Alex-Nmecha, J. (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Libraries. In Managing and Adapting Library Information Services for Future Users (pp. 120-44). IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-1116-9.ch008

Wood, B. A., & Evans, D. J. (2018, Jan – Feb). Librarians’ Perceptions of Artificial Intelligence and Its Potential Impact on the Profession. Computers in Libraries, 38(1), 26. Retrieved May 10, 2023, from–Librarians-Perceptions-of-Artificial-Intelligence.shtml


Goodbye NIC, Hello World!

On 31st March 2023, I retired from National Informatics Centre on superannuation.

It had been wonderful journey of my life with National Informatics Centre (NIC). This enjoyable journey has been completed in 31 Years, 5 Months and 1 Day. It was on 30th October 1991 when I joined NIC as Scientific Officer/Engineer-SB. Before that, I was employed at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). On joining NIC, I was posted in its Bibliographic Informatics Division. However the division was popularly known as Indian MEDLARS Centre or simply MEDLARS. In those wonderful days, it was one of the most prestigious and popular Divisions of NIC. Popular to the extent that some people even use to ask – what else NIC does other than MEDLARS?! No wonder, if it was showcased to all VVIPs visitors.

By the way, MEDLARS was not something that NIC created. It actually stood for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System of US National Library of Medicine (NLM) that originated in 1964. It is core to Medical and Biomedical Research and no research can practically be initiated or completed without searching it. In late 1980s, NIC and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) teamed up to provide information from MEDLARS to Doctors and Biomedical Researchers in India. Thus, the Indian Medlars Centre was born in NIC. Information was retrieved online through ISD lines using dial-up Modems from US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It was costly that way – database access was charged by NLM per seconds in dollars plus there was ISD phone charges. So, special skills were required to retrieve the most “relevant” information within the shortest time frame in a cost effective manner. Just remember, it was pre-Internet and pre-Google era. Planned and written “Search Strategies” consisting of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings from NLM Thesaurus) keywords connected with Boolean Operators were required before reaching out to the access terminals.   No wonder, few Information Specialists with biomedical background like me were recruited by NIC to be part of its MEDLARS team. To provide affordable and country wide access to the MEDLINE Database (online counterpart of MEDLARS), a MoU was signed with NLM and the database was acquired from NLM, US. It was hosted on a Unix server in the Division and connected to NICNET. Data use to come on Tapes from US and it took days to convert and upload to the server. Medical Institutions across the country used to dial-up to nearest NIC District Centres to access the server through NICNET.  MEDLARS team was hosting and updating database along with providing paid information retrieval services, connectivity and training to the end users and institutions.

As “change is the only constant in life”. Internet technologies emerged and the web became popular. The internet became available to Indian public on 15th August 1995. NLM made a web avatar of its chargeable MEDLINE and named it PubMed. After that, in June 1997, made it available free of charge on the web. So, our hosted database on NICNET was bound to have its natural death. Slowly our paid information retrieval services also appeared to be meaningless as end users with proper training could access PubMed freely without any time constraint.

The Human is supreme in animal kingdom because it has the ability to adapt to the environment and situations. I was also changing and adapting to the emerging technologies. When I joined NIC, I had academic qualification of M.Sc. in Anthropology and professional qualification of M.L.I.S (Master of Library and Information Science). I studied during service and completed M.S. (Software Systems) from BITS Pilani in 2001 with outstanding grade.  For my M.S. dissertation, I wrote a text search engine.  It was used to sow the seeds of a National Database named IndMED by indexing Indian medical research journals on the lines of PubMed adopting international standards. To supplement IndMED, we convinced medical journals to host their full text article for free access on a single platform – MedIND. Experimented with Open Access Repository of Medical Research Articles in the form of OpenMED@NIC. Individual authors could upload their articles and tag them with MeSH keywords. This experiment latter laid foundation of a new Digital Archiving Division latter using DSpace.  These initiatives were well taken by the medical community both in India and abroad.

Good time flies and once a darling, Indian Medlars Centre was no longer relevant in NIC. Come March 2009, it was formally shutdown. However, IndMED and MedIND continued with the support of ICMR funds under my leadership.

I had been actively involved with the medical community going up to the extent of becoming life member of Indian Association for Medical Informatics (IAMI). I was elected as Executive Editor (2007-10) of its official journal – Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. I had also been the Executive Member of the Indian Association of Medical Informatics.

Since January 2017 till retirement I headed Programme Management and Parliamentary Matters Section. It dealt with Parliamentary matters related to NIC like Questions, Assurances and Parliamentary Committees. Monitored progress of NIC Projects/ Services and provided reports, information and presentations to higher authorities. I won’t be wrong if I put the section as an extended DG Office.

Enjoyed my stay at NIC. Got promotions. Login was as Scientific Officer/Engineer-SB and Logout is as Scientist – G / Deputy Director General. Would miss wonderful colleagues and environment.

It’s time to say Goodbye NIC – but I think goodbyes are sad and I’d rather say hello.

Hello World!!!